Golam mostsarsarder set off every day before dawn and stood up from the thin reed mat in the shed he shared with 15 roommates.
There is enough room for everyone to lie flat.
He's wearing shorts and T-shirts.
Make a shirt with the light of a dangling bulb.
Outside the shideo open door on the outskirts of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is a brick factory where Golam and his neighbors work 15 hours a day, seven days a week, at least six months a year
His home in Gabura, a remote village on the southwest coast of the country, has been traveling from the city by bus, rickshaw and ferry for more than a day.
Golam's job is to push the mud on the trolley to the production line. Waist-
The high row of dry bricks spiraled off from towering kilns, smoking in an area the size of a city block. By 6 p. m.
His thin frame was splashed with gray mud.
The evening air is swimming with mosquitoes.
He had only enough strength left to clean his bare-footed and angular face, breathe in a dinner of lentils and rice, and pour on the mat.
Golam has never heard of global warming.
But he said he must know one thing: I don't need to be here if the river doesn't take our land.
Bangladesh, a densely populated South Asian river country, has survived tropical storms, floods and other natural disasters.
But today, climate change has accelerated the old destructive forces, created new patterns of displacement, and contributed to the outbreak of rapid, chaotic urbanization.
A report from the United States last weekS.
The Government Accountability Office found that the State Council and other foreign aid agencies did not do enough to deal with climate change --
Bangladesh was stressed to be a particularly vulnerable country.
With climate change driving as many as 0. 2 billion migrants worldwide by 2050, Dhaka has provided a warning for asylum-seeking cities around the world.
Interviews with dozens of immigrant families, scientists, urban planners, human rights advocates and government officials in Bangladesh show that while Bangladesh is keenly aware of the vulnerability of climate change, not doing enough to match the speed and scale of the resulting displacement and urbanization, reversing any prospect of humanitarian life for one of the world's most populous climate migrants.
At present, the government's vision is that there is no vision, said Tasneem Siddiqui, a political scientist at the University of Dhaka in charge of the Research Department of the movement for refugees and migration.
Everything was in Dhaka and people came to Dhaka.
Dhaka is collapsing.
Bangladesh has a population of 0. 165 billion in smaller areas than Illinois. One-
The third of them lives on the southern coast, a lush honeycomb of island villages, farms and fish ponds, connected by a protective dam.
Most of the country's land area is not above sea level than New York City, and more than one during the rainy season --
The fifth of the country can be flooded at the same time.
For thousands of years, people living in the huge delta of the Sierra accept the turbulent, dangerous landscape of floods and tropical storms, which is the cost of getting rich agricultural soil and lucrative maritime trade routes.
On November, Forida Khatun stood behind the house in Gabura, Bangladesh.
Her two sons were destroyed many times by storms at home and immigrated to Dhaka after the agricultural work was lost due to the invasion of salinity.
"Only Allah can save us," she said . ".
"We have no power to save our children.
People have been dealing with floods and they have learned how to deal with death, Sidsiddiqui said.
But with climate change, many of the damage is permanent.
So you have to adapt to the new way of life. âx80x9d (
Learn about floating hospitals in Bangladesh. )
Climate change is destroying traditional rainfall patterns in some areas, drought in some areas, unexpected floods in other areas, and increasing silt
Massive runoff from glaciers in the upper reaches of the Himalayas has led to increased flooding and riverbank erosion.
Every year an area larger than Manhattan is washed away. Meanwhile, sea-
Rising sea levels push salt water into coastal farming areas and are expected to flood large areas permanently.
According to the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, an average of nearly 700,000 Bangladeshi people have been displaced by natural disasters each year over the past decade.
With the devastating hurricane, this number has risen sharply in a few years, such as the displacement of millions and the death of more than 200 people.
But even in the relatively calm years, with the arrival of the sea, the drums of displacement are growing.
Rising sea levels, erosion, invasion of salinity, poor crop harvests and repeated flooding make life off the coast unsustainable.
Overall, due to the various effects of climate change, the number of people displaced in Bangladesh could reach 13.
3 million to 2050, making it the number of the country
According to a report by the World Bank in March 2018, a driver for domestic migration.
Saleemul Huq said: "On the coast, we can predict with great certainty that many people who live there now will not be able to continue living there because their livelihood will disappear, director of Dhaka
Headquartered at the international climate change and development center, it is one of the leading climate scientists in China.
As people fled the fragile coastal areas, most people came to the urban slums, especially Dhaka, one of the fastest cities in the world.
The most densely populated mega city.
The city is considered a bastion of national economic opportunity, but it is also full of extreme poverty, public health hazards, human trafficking and other risks, including its own risk of being vulnerable to floods.
Already, as low as 400,000.
Income migrants arrive in Dhaka every year.
Dhaka is full of people who fled the village because it was swallowed up by the sea or rivers.
Millions of people will not be able to absorb in the future.
Today, urban planners, decision makers, scientists and farmers are strengthening dams, innovating home design, rebuilding communities, building shelters and planting salt --
Among other behaviors, rice seeds can be tolerated.
But their actions are too slow to help many people like Golam, who survived a series of catastrophic storms, only to find that immigration is the only viable path.
Golam was the child when his family's house was first destroyed.
He was so young that he could not remember the wind pulling out his father's fruit trees, the flood taking away the tea and rice in the small shop at home, and the mud wall crumbling, he and his mother took refuge in the neighbor's house, and then, when all this was washed away, when they were running from the raging banks in the darkness, fell into an empty grave.
A few years later, the second storm hit their next house.
Third, after that: Hurricane Ella not only washed away the latest house and everything in it, but also washed away the land it was in, the last piece of property of the family.
After Ella, Gora's family was homeless, had no land, had little property, and was high everywhere
In the next ten years, it will silently destroy the salt water of fisheries and agriculture.
For a young man with three children
Grade education, brick factories and their commitment to cash are the only way to support the family.
He said that no one would come here to work in my childhood.
But now, from my village, almost every family will send at least one person.
His brother joined him a few years ago.
In six months, everyone's income is less than $1,500, which is his total income this year.
Their only rest time is when it rains.
In those days, they went to the international airport by bus, stood outside the fence and watched the plane go in and out, imagining where they might be going.
"I want God to be friendly and look at me well," said Goran, "and change my luck . ". âx80x9d (
Learn about the boat breakers in Bangladesh. )
Young men relax on the floodgates of mon pull, a thriving port town in Bangladesh.
The city's goal is to rebuild itself as a magnet for climate migrants, invest in the sea walls and other adaptive infrastructure, factories and other jobs, as well as public services such as affordable housing, schools, and hospitals.
Life is not easy for climate migrants arriving in Dhaka.
Men and boys work in brick factories, drive rickshaws and build skyscrapers.
Women and girls clean houses, sew Western fashions, and raise families in multiple steps along the way, often repelling sexual violence.
Education is a luxury;
The rent is ridiculous.
Eviction happens as suddenly as the collapsed river bank.
Feeling far away from home.
In February, the 34-year-old sahaa Begum died of a heart attack.
She managed to support their four daughters for months in a small town on the Padma River called Naria.
Then she lost their house.
On a hot night in August, the river bank was crushed and sent downstream along with her house of more than a dozen neighbors.
When my house went into the water, I felt like I had a stroke and could die, she said.
We had no choice when we lost our house.
Within a week, she took her daughter to Dhaka, a few hours upstream.
They managed to find a dead room in a slum called Kamrangirchar near the city center.
End the alley behind a noisy fabric market built on an old dump.
She pays about $40 a month, which is 70% of her daily wage for housework, for a dark 10-by-ten-
Concrete room under stairs.
Her 13-year-old daughter also does housework, while her 11-year-old daughteryear-
Take care of the 6-year-old at homeand 9-year-olds.
They share three toilets, one four.
A burner stove that lives in the alley with 12 other families.
40% of urban residents live in such slums, hundreds of which are spread throughout the city.
According to the International Organization for Migration, as many as 70% of slum dwellers have moved there due to environmental problems.
The slum appeared in the backyard of glass skyscrapers, across the rails, stepping on stilts on the water --
Flood plain on the edge of the construction site.
Five or more family members often share single beds.
Sewage works freely.
Structural fires can easily spread.
When it works completely, most of the electricity is illegally obtained from the grid.
The invasion of insects is inevitable.
The skin and stomach diseases transmitted by dirty water are routine, and the infant mortality rate is twice that of rural areas.
Rent money flows into the black market of real estate controlled by corrupt local officials and businessmen.
Bergom says it's hard to make a living here.
But my life is the life of my children.
If I can create a good future for them, this is the best thing I hope. âx80x9d (
Understand the Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh, which is also the source of environmental degradation. )
When Bangladesh became independent in 1971, the rural population was 91% per cent.
But Dhaka broke out as the country began to shift from an agricultural economy to manufacturing and other urban industries.
Today, almost one
The third population lives in cities, and Dhaka has almost three times the population of the country's next three largest cities.
The city holds 47,500 people per square kilometer, almost twice the population density of Manhattan.
Low throughout the growth process
A said the income earners were completely excluded from the urban development framework. Q. M.
Mahbub, City Research Fellow, University of Dhaka.
Affordable housing and public transport connecting the city center to the suburbs are common in the megacities of India and China and have never been a priority.
Local officials still tend to treat slum dwellers as illegal squatters rather than residents who have the right to basic services.
Tariq Bin Yousuf, a senior official of Dhaka City Corporation, a government agency that manages urban infrastructure, said that while the city plans to build more affordable housing, it is more willing to allow slum dwellers to rely on assistance from local and international NGOs
If we invest directly in slum areas or give them electricity, they will start thinking. K.
'We have these facilities, so we have ownership of the land, 'he said.
Once we provide them with better service, they will become permanent.
Leading public policy experts in many countries believe that climate migration is a regrettable burden attitude that is short-livedsighted.
Mohammed Kabir Hussain, who is driving a rickshaw, is one of many climate migrants who are attracted to Mongra as a replacement for Dhaka.
Due to salinity and flooding, there are not many opportunities in my village.
But I can make a lot of money here, he said.
You can't stop climate change and immigration, said Siddiki of Dhaka University.
But you can turn them into opportunities for development.
A prosperous port city in the south of the country.
The Central Coast is testing the theory to begin a City reform that aims to turn it into a magnet for climate migrants.
It's one of several emerging secondary cities, climate models.
Savvy urban planning, where investments in city walls and other adaptive infrastructure combine with factories and other blue buildings
Employment opportunities, as well as public services such as affordable housing, schools and hospitals.
Unless we can attract people to other places, there is no way to stop them from coming to Dhaka, Huq said.
The next 10 million kilometers can go to these secondary towns.
Girls and boys today, the next generation of citizens.
The planners hope that the ingredients in Mongra are correct. It has a well-
Deep-water ports surrounded by huge industrial zones with cement plants and large diesel storage facilities, as well as 24 factories to provide work for 4,300 workers, produce a wide range of products from luggage, electronics to packaged snacks and mannequin.
It is located in the center of the national coastal zone, large enough to provide opportunities, but small enough to have room for growth.
We have an overall plan to make the city more practical and beautiful, said Mohammed oluddin, deputy mayor of Mongra.
People used to have to leave Mongra to find a job.
Now, due to good living conditions, they start to work in the industrial sector and stay.
So far, local officials have invested in two floods. control gates;
Alauddin said that a fresh water treatment and distribution system has increased the number of houses with tap water from one
The third to one in the total number of cities-half;
Eleven kilometers walk-
A friendly path of Riverside bricks;
Closed two dozen.
Circuit security camera;
A city-wide speaker system that Announces bad weather and plays inspirational pop music;
And 4,000 shade trees.
Several new apartment buildings are under construction, along with a watchtower from which visitors can view the nearby Sundarban mangrove forest.
There seems to be a return on investment.
Over the past five years, the population has grown by nearly 60% to 110,000, and land prices have soared.
The industrial zone is separated from the city center by a river, which is packed with passengers standing side by side on ferries during peak hours every night.
The reputation of the town is also spreading.
Due to salinity and flooding, there are not many opportunities in my village.
Mohammed Kabir Hussain said, but here I can make a lot of money and he drives from the industrial zone to the ferry station in a rickshaw.
A few years ago, he came to Mongra from Koyra on the southwest coast.
Many people came from southern Bangladesh, especially those who did not want to go to Dhaka.
Located in the golam gols family home in Cabra, there is a courtyard on the frame of two low wooden buildings leading to a group of rectangular shrimp ponds extending to the horizon.
Followed by a crumbling ten.
No more than 3 feet wide foot Bank, paved with gray bricks produced by Labor with Gaolan and the people of each family here far away from home.
Behind the riverbank, a river separates civilization from the world's largest mangrove forest, the unpopulated Sundarbans.
The family lived in fear, fearing that the house on a small wedge rented from the village would be washed away again.
The mother of Golam, Forida Khatun, shared her son's corner face.
She squatted on the outer wall of the house, wrapped in yellow flowers with purple saris, and her arms sparkled with silver bracelets, driving away a medley chicken.
She recalled with a high voice that Goran was an energetic, cunning child, always in trouble.
He liked the boat. once, he dragged the canoe to the mangrove forest. it took too long to go home by himself.
At that time, Khatun was able to send several older boys from nearby to rescue him.
Now, she is worried that he will leave her forever.
If our land is still there, our son may stay if the salinity decreases, she said.
Only Allah can save us.
We have no power to save our children.
Here the land is wealth and the family is gone.
At the same time, the effect of salinity on the job market is as great as its effect on water and soil: many wealthy farmers have turned their rice pies into salt --
Basically take care of your own tolerant shrimp pond.
A November study by the International Food Policy Institute found that the corrosion of salinity to the local agricultural economy could lead to the displacement of up to 200,000 people from the coast of Bangladesh.
In Gabura, the exodus has begun.
Jobs are declining due to climate change, said Isharat Jahan Mintu, chairman of the village government.
The great risks of natural disasters make people want to go to safer places.
According to mintu estimates, the average increase in high tide is 1 feet per year, of which 1-
The third piece of arable land in the village became useless due to salinity.
Farmers are reluctant to plant a small portion of their available land because they are afraid to see their entire nest eggs and local banks washed away at the same time, see the same risks, and be stingy with loans
Two results at most-
Three villagers, including Golam, left Dhaka and other cities for work temporarily or permanently.
With a generation of young people losing confidence in one of the most productive areas of South Asia, those still worried that the social fabric of the village would be irretrievably destroyed.
Families are fragmented, children grow up without a father, and lifelong neighbors are opposed to each other by land.
Some areas of the bank are like ghost cities, with wooden boards on both sides --up shops.
No one wants to leave, but many think there is no way to stay.
Immigration is very emotional, says Mintu.
It makes the center of the village empty.